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Cognition and culture in New Caledonian crows

New Caledonian crows are the most accomplished tool manufacturers in the animal kingdom. They make two distinct types of hook tool and have possibly made cumulative changes to their tool designs over time. There is little evidence for both of these technological feats in the tool use of nonhuman primates. The complexity of their tool skills make the species an ideal model with which to study the cognition associated with the early stages in the evolution of tool use.