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Māori and Pacific research ethics within the School of Psychology

This webpage has been set up by the Māori and Pacific Psychology Research Committee to support non-Māori staff and postgraduate researchers who wish to include Māori and Pacific people as part of their research, and do so in a way that treats all those involved respectfully.

Māori psychology research practice

  • This website gives a good introduction to Kaupapa Māori research, and useful grounding in Māori research practices for those considering doing research with Māori. Webpage tabs include subsections on considerations for Kaupapa Māori research pertaining to the research idea, research proposal, ethics, methodology, method, analysis, and knowledge exchange. There are some engaging videos of experienced researchers discussing their work.

  • This website compiles some literature on Kaupapa Māori research, with helpful article summaries, intended for postgraduate students.


Te Mana Raraunga (TMR) Data Sovereignty terms and principles
Te Mana Raraunga (TMR) provides a general overview of key Māori Data Sovereignty terms and principles. TMR advocates for the realisation of Māori rights and interests in data, and for the ethical use of data to enhance the wellbeing of our people, language and culture. (98.4 kB, PDF)

Pacific psychology research practice

Le Va. (2009). Let’s Get Real: Real Skills for People Working in Mental Health & Addiction. Real Skills Plus Seitapu: Working with Pacific Peoples. The National Centre of Mental Health Research, Information and Workforce Development, Auckland.

  • This is a report on Pacific cultural competencies that was done for the Ministry of Health, and is very relevant to psychological research.

McFaull-McCaffery, J. (2010). Getting started with Pacific research: Finding resources and information on Pacific research models and methodologies, MAI Review, 2010:1.

  • This article lists some good resources for Pacific research methods.

Anae, M., Coxon, E., Mara, D., Wendt-Samu, T. and Finau, C. (2001). Pasifika Education Research Guidelines. Ministry of Education, Wellington.

  • This article provides useful guidelines for Pacific research and the parameters around definitions of Pacific people.

Tiatia J. 2008. Pacific Cultural Competencies: A literature review. Wellington: Ministry of Health.

  • This paper was developed for those wanting to work with Pacific peoples and their families in the mental health and addiction workforce, and provides useful suggestions for engaging with Pacific people in research.



Non-Māori researcher engagement with Māori

Cheung, M., Gibbons, H., Dragunow, M. and Faull, R. (2007). Tikanga in the Laboratory: Engaging Safe Practice, MAI Review, 1(1)

  • This paper outlines some clear and practical suggestions for bringing Māori practices into the lab to ensure research is respectful and mindful of Māori ways of knowing and being.

Cunningham, C. (1999). Māori research and development. Health Care & Informatics Review Online, 3(2).

  • Cunningham (1999) provide a useful table that outlines a continuum of different degrees of Māori involvement and the level of Māori participation, advised methodologies and techniques, and who should be in control of research decisions and analysing data.

Furness, J., Nikora, L., Hodgetts & Robertson, N. (2016). Beyond ethics to morality: Choices and relationships in bicultural research settings, in Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 26:75-88.

  • Furness et al. (2016) describe a process of critically reflexive research practice through their study of adult literacy education within a Maori community. We advise all researchers who are researching the views, lives, and experiences of people who are marginalised to engage in this practice. Like culturally competent psychological practice, critically reflexive research practice offers a way to deeply reflect and think carefully about our everyday practice and how it may or may not be producing unintended harms to those we work with.

Hodgetts, D., Chamberlain, K., & Groot, S. (2012). 20 Reflections on the visual in community research and action. Visual methods in psychology, in Reavey, P. (Ed). Visual Methods in Psychology: Using and Interpreting Images in Qualitative Research. London: Routledge.

  • This paper attends to important considerations for considering visual research ethics with Indigeous people.

Hudson, M., Milne, M., Reynolds, P., Russell, K., Smith, B. (2010). Te Ara Tika Guidelines for Māori Research Ethics: A framework for researchers and ethics committee members.  Auckland: Health Research Council of New Zealand.

  • Hudson, Milne, Reynolds & Smith (2010) provides a more detailed Māori ethical framework that engages core Māori tikanga to guide and frame an approach to research that considers how the research design, research relationships, justice and equity, and cultural and social responsibility are engaged with. Guidelines are then formulated for researchers who engage with Māori in relation to mainstream, Māori-centred, and Kaupapa Māori research.

Mc Creanor, T. (2004). Anti-Māori Themes.

  • This webpage resources outlines some common patterns of racism perpetuated in media discourse. It would be useful for scholars engaging with research that involves Māori to familiarise themselves with these patterns of meaning that may unwittingly inform and shape the production of knowledge about Māori.

Martin, K. (2006). Please Knock Before You Enter: An Investigation of how Rainforest Aboriginal People Regulate Outsiders and the Implications for Western Research and Researchers. PhD thesis, James Cook University.

  • While this work is about indigenous people doing research within indigenous communities it is a useful read for non-indigenous readers. Located in an Australian context, the author discusses their transition from being ‘known about in research’ to ‘being known’ in chapter 6 entitled ‘Implications for Aboriginal research and indigenist researchers.’

Moewaka Barnes, H., Henwood, W., Kerr, S., McManus, V., & McCreanor, T. (2011). Knowledge transfer and indigenous research. In E. M. Banister, B. J. Leadbetter & E. A. Marshall (Eds.), Community-based appraoches to knowledge translation. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

  • This paper outlines what is meant by knowledge sharing and exchanges between researchers, participants, and wider community.

Moewaka Barnes, H., McCreanor, T. & Huakau, J. (2008). Māori and the New Zealand values survey: The importance of research relationships, in Kōtuitui: New Zealand Journal of Social Sciences online, 3(2): 135-147.

  • Moewaka Barnes, McCreanor, & Huakau (2008) outline their experiences collaborating with non-Māori researchers on research projects that involve Māori, presenting useful examples of doing so in quantitative projects, and provide guidelines for making decisions about research collaborations with non-Māori.

Pohatu, T. W. (2005). Ata: Growing respectful relationships. Unpublished manscript. Te Wānanga o Aotearoa. Manukau.

  • This paper outlines some fundamental assumptions for considering research relationships with Māori.

Royal Society (2017). Mentoring Guidelines.

  • The Royal Society has produced some really helpful guidelines about mentoring in Aotearoa, New Zealand – including some integration of Māori and Pacific knowledges. The guidelines make a careful distinction between mentoring and supervision, but nonetheless provide some useful concepts for supervisors working with Māori and Pacific students to consider in teaching and supervision.

Walter, M., & Andersen, C. (2013). Indigenous statistics: A quantitative research methodology. London: Routledge. 

  • In the first book ever published on Indigenous quantitative methodologies, Maggie Walter and Chris Andersen open up a major new approach to research across the disciplines and applied fields. While qualitative methods have been rigorously critiqued and reformulated, the population statistics relied on by virtually all research on Indigenous peoples continue to be taken for granted as straightforward, transparent numbers. 

Māori and Pasifika psychology research topic knowledge

These are useful resources that compile Māori and Pasifika psychology literature, broadly conceptualised, and listed in a thematic structure that validates Māori and Pasifika psychologies. The resources will be useful for staff and students who are interested in relevant topic based knowledge on Māori and Pasifika psychologies.

He Kohikohinga Rangahau



Hyde, J., Le Grice, J., Moore, C., Groot, S., Fia-Ali’I, J., Manuela, S. . (2017). He Kohikohinga Rangahau: A Bibliography of Māori and Psychology Research. School of Psychology, The University of Auckland



He Kohikohinga Rangahau
A Bibliography of Māori and Psychology Research. School of Psychology, The University of Auckland (2.0 MB, PDF)
O le Toe Ulutaia



Fia’Ali’i, J. T., Manuela, S., Le Grice, J., Groot, S., & Hyde, J. (2017). ‘O le Toe Ulutaia: A Bibliography of Pasifika and Psychology Research. School of Psychology, The University of Auckland.


‘O le Toe Ulutaia
A Bibliography of Pasifika and Psychology Research. School of Psychology, The University of Auckland. (1.4 MB, PDF)

Vision Mātauranga

  • Vision Mātauranga is a Ministry of Research, Science and Technology initiative to resource and mobilise the innovation and potential of Māori knowledge, resources, and people. There is an expectation that research proposals submitted to the Faculty of Science (including Psychology) address how the proposed research engages with the four research themes outlined in Vision Mātauranga Māori
    • Indigenous innovation: Contributing to economic growth through distinctive R&D
    • Taiao: Achieving environmental sustainability through iwi and hapu relationships with land and sea
    • Hauora/Oranga: Improving health and social wellbeing
    • Mātauranga: Exploring indigenous knowledge and RS&T.
  • Teariki Tuiono, Faculty of Science Kaiārahi is available for guidance regarding Vision Mātauranga for research proposals and ethics.

Questions and Answers

Q. How do I set up a research project, and reflect on research questions, so that it is ethically sound for Māori?

A. See Te Ara Tika Guidelines for Māori Research Ethics for guidance on, and considerations for, setting up a research project.


Q. How do I engage in research in a way that will mutually enhance Māori communities who are participating in the research, as advisors, and/or recruiters or participants?

A. See Te Ara Tika Guidelines for Māori Research Ethics or visit Kaupapa Māori website for guidance on aligning research with community aspirations.


Q. How do I engage with Māori who I have identified as having some expertise or stake in the communities I am interested in consulting with/taking part in/being interviewed for my research project?

A. Visit Kaupapa Māori website for guidance on research relationships and engagement.


Q. What research has been done with Māori in the general topic area that I want to research?

A. See He Kohikohinga Rangahau: A Bibliography of Māori and Psychology Research for listed research within particular topic areas. We are working on producing an update in 2016!


Best practice examples | vignettes from the field

Working with Hapu Collectives | Jade Le Grice

I started my PhD without an explicit awareness of my own knowledge about mātauranga, tikanga and te reo Māori. I was also frequently questioned about whether or not I was actually Māori. I had however, been born in Rawene (Hokianga) to a Māori mother (Robyn) and Pākehā father (Chris), and had some beautiful experiences to make meaning of being Māori with my prolific Sarich, Toia (Ko Ngāti Korokoro, Ngati Wharara, Te Pouka, Te Mahurehure ngā hapu; Ko Ngāpuhi te iwi) and Morgan, Harris (Ko Ngāi Tupoto te hapu; Ko Te Rarawa te iwi) whānau. It was from the central basis point of my Māori identity (my mum, nan, cousins, aunties, uncles, grand aunties and grand uncles) that I took roots in kaupapa Māori research, attending to Māori academic understandings of what it means to be Māori within the grounds of my research topic (Māori and reproduction). I attended hapu wananga, talking to people about my research and sharing ideas, offering to take notes, and getting to know more relations than my immediate whānau. This laid down the whariki to move confidently in Māori spaces. This meant I was able to communicate who I was in the context of my relations, when networking with people outside of the hapu spaces of marae, and whānau homesteads.

Broadening connections from my whānau to my hapu (and to an extent, my iwi) assisted me with a connection to a raft of skillsets and expertise. Interviewing people within my hapu was better than I could have imagined. The mātauranga they shared was familiar. It was connected to shared histories of our whenua. It was simultaneously invigorating and novel, but contained patterns of familiarity that allowed me to make meaning and connect. It allowed me to reflexively identify how their descriptions of knowledge and practice applied to my identity as Māori and how this in turn, related to mātauranga and tikanga Māori – the repertoires and patterns of my life.

As a PhD student, learning how to do research ethically, maintaining assurance of confidentiality and anonymity of accounts, was paramount. Researching among people who may know one another, and could be potentially identified meant there was no room for error. Information I was privy to in setting up interviews, and that was shared in the interviews, did not go any further than me. Quoted material was often selected on the basis of not being identifiable, and key identifiable information was changed. The knowledge produced through this research has a strong core with mātauranga Hokianga, but also extends more broadly through the country with interviews conducted in areas further afield, and including participants with diverse hapu and iwi connections, offering a solid contribution as mātauranga Māori. This is important to validate in the discipline of psychology where our ways of life, patterns of practice, and social meanings are invisibilised, denied, or appropriated to reduce the meaning this has in our lived experiences.

Given the importance of validating local knowledge bearers within the community, as a more experienced researcher, I now give participants the option of being named in relation to their material or for their contribution to be anonymous, at the outset. This involves a more time consuming process of going through summary reports of participant interviews to identify which areas to be named or remain anonymous. However, as a researcher who has been supported by their hapu to develop a research profile, through the quality of the knowledges shared by the hapu, and developing analyses that attend to key questions in psychology, this is vital. It is important to validate the hapu individuals who collectively hold the answers to psychological challenges faced by our people, and the capacity to enact community solutions.

Working with Māori communities as Tauiwi | Elaine Ballard

My background

I am a non-Māori researcher whose background is in linguistics. The type of research I do covers various aspects of language. I am interested in how speech and language develops in children, how to adapt English language assessments into other languages and multilingualism in the communities of New Zealand. Given my interests it‘s not surprising that I have ended up doing some of my research with the Māori and Pacific Island communities.

Looking back to when I first became involved in research with both communities I feel somewhat embarrassed. I know that I made mistakes culturally because I made assumptions about how to go about doing the research.  When we have been doing a particular type of research a while we really don’t stop to consider whether or not it’s appropriate to always do it that way.  I don’t consider myself an expert but over time I have learned the following:

Lesson 1: Be humble and respectful

I know more about language and linguistic research than the average person because of my training.  However, I am now mindful that the way I generally do linguistic research is based on a tradition established with numerous studies into English and other European languages. A powerful example of why I should question this was brought home to me while working on a child language project in Samoa. I was invited to come along to a therapy session with a child with Downs Syndrome.  This child had an older sibling aged around three who was also present.  While observing the session I became increasingly aware of how still and focussed the three year old was during the entire time. This struck me as unusual given the interactive, very verbal, caregiver supported studies that I was familiar with from numerous child language studies. I realised that what is typical for Western children is not necessarily the norm for children from other cultural backgrounds. If I am going to do meaningful relevant research, I need to step back and cede the power to those who have more experience than me regardless of academic qualification.

Lesson 2: Take the time to build a relationship with the community

With the first lesson in mind, I found it important to spend time listening to, observing, and learning from the community and my students. Maybe the research does not happen quickly but having a relationship builds trust. That’s critical to the success of the project because every step of the research is a collaboration between researcher and community. Having a relationship with a community would, of course, seem to contravene the guidelines of ethical research. However research with Māori and Pacific participants is not going to happen if this doesn’t already exist.

A good example of relationship building is a project that I currently have underway.  I have a Māori speaking student who is working as a RA for me on a Māori adaptation of an English language parental report. Progress on the project has not been quick but it has been enlightening. We have spent countless hours discussing the motivation for creating the adaptation and how to adapt a tool that is entrenched in a specific world view. Spending so much time laying the groundwork may seem a total waste.  However, the outcome will be meaningful collaborative research where he and I are learning from each other.


National Māori and Pacific organisations

These are some of the networks relevant to Māori research within a psychological scope, though this list is not exhaustive or all encompassing. There are many more relevant organisations, agencies and initiatives that are not listed here. Key contacts can be found on the related webpages, or are listed where relevant.

National standing Committee on Bicultural Issues is a branch of The New Zealand Psychological Society

Pasifikology is a network of Pasifika psychologists, graduates and students of psychology

Le Va is a non-government organisation that provides resources and support for Pasifika people in the areas of mental health, addiction, public health, suicide prevention and education  

Nga Pae o te Maramatanga is New Zealand's Māori Centre of Research Excellence (CoRE), hosted here at The University of Auckland, through Te Wānanga o Waipapa

Te Kupenga o MAI, the Māori and indigenous programme, is a New Zealand-wide support network for Māori and indigenous post-graduate students

Te Pou o Te Whakaaro Nui is a national centre of evidence based workforce development for the mental health, addiction and disability sectors in New Zealand

Te Puni Kokiri is the government's principal adviser on the Crown's relationship with iwi, hapu and Māori, and on key Government policies as they affect Māori

Waka Hourua is the partnership between national Māori health workforce development organisation Te Rau Matatini and national Pacific non-government organisation, Le Va. Te Rau Matatini and Le Va have come together to deliver Waka Hourua, a suicide prevention programme for Māori and Pasifika communities

Te Rau Matatini provides a strategic focus for Māori workforce training, education and capability building solutions for the advancement of indigenous health and wellbeing

Te Ropu Wahine Maori Toko i te Ora (Maori Women’s Welfare League Inc), is a prominent, reputable Maori organisation in New Zealand’s social and commercial environment

National Māori takatāpui initiatives - see the following link to a fantastic free resource for takatāpui, their whānau & communities that provides information about identity, wellbeing and suicide prevention produced in partnership with Tiwhanawhana Trust: and an amazing doco series that explores how the term takatāpui was undermined through colonisation and includes interviews with takatāpui (specifically renowned queer activist and art historian Ngahuia Te Awekotuku)

Treaty Resource Centre – He Puna Mātauranga o Te Tiriti provide 'Making Sense of the Treaty' courses for organisations to host. Hosts provide the venue and a cup of tea for participants. There is no charge for facilitation or resources.

Tangata whenua of Tāmaki


Tangata whenua of Tamaki

Image sourced from:

Several iwi and hapū inhabit the Tāmaki (Auckland) landscape. These include Ngāti Pāoa, Ngāti Whātua-o-Ōrākei (a hapū of Ngāti Whātua iwi),  Te Kawerau A-Maki, Ngāi Tai, Te Wai-o-Hua/Ngā Oho (hapū of Te Ᾱkitai) and Ngāti te Ata (a hapū of Tainui iwi) In some research topics it may be appropriate to collaborate and develop a relationship with tangata whenua.


University of Auckland centres and initiatives

I, Too, Am Auckland is the culmination of a Nga Pae o te Maramatanga summer internship that engages with Māori and Pacific students’ everyday experiences of racism here at The University of Auckland, and considers possible solutions.

The Equity office provides scholarships, advice and support for Māori and Pacific students to assist with success at the University

James Henare Research Centre, based at the University of Auckland, is a research centre focussed on community research within the Tai Tokerau (Northland) regionāori-at-the-university/james-henare-Māori-research-centre.html

Te Wananga o Waipapa is the School of Māori and Pacific Studies within the Faculty of Arts see also the related webpage about our marae here at The University of Auckland, Waipapa maraeāori-studies/waipapa-marae.html


School of Psychology initiatives

The Māori and Pacific Psychology Committee supports Māori and Pacific initiatives within the School of Psychology and is comprised of Māori and Pacific staff and allies within the School of Psychology. See our 2015 annual report (below), and newly refined mission statement. Contact co-chairs Hineatua Parkinson or Sarah Kapeli for any related queries.

The Tuākana programme provides initiatives for social and academic support for Māori and Pacific undergraduate and postgraduate students through their tertiary study:āori-and-pacific-students.html

Māori and Pacific Psychology Research Group provides a support structure for Māori and Pacific postgraduate research students through their tertiary studyāori-and-pacific-research-group.html

School of Psychology ethics advisors are also available to assist with ethics related queries.


Glossary of some relevant psychological terms in reo Māori

  • Ahi kaa to keep ‘the home fires burning’, refers to those who remain engaged with their papa kāinga and fulfil tasks and obligations on marae
  • Ako to learn and teach concurrently
  • Aroha affection, sympathy, charity, compassion, love, empathy
  • Aroha ki te tangata a respect for people (L. Smith, 2006)
  • Atawhai to show kindness to, to raise or adopt temporarily
  • Atua supernatural being, literally translated in English as ‘Potential being from beyond’ (T. Smith, 2009)
  • Awa river, stream, creek, canal, gully, gorge, groove, furrow
  • Awhi to embrace, cherish (also means to surround sit on eggs, brood)
  • Haka vigorous dance with actions and powerful rhythmically sung words
  • Hapū sub tribe, to be pregnant, conceived in the womb
  • Hau kainga the home people of a marae
  • Hinengaro mind, thought, intellect, consciousness, awareness
  • Hoa takatāpui intimate friend of the same sex
  • Hui gathering, meeting, assembly, seminar, conference
  • Ia he and she
  • Iwi tribe, strength, bone
  • Kai food, or to eat
  • Kaikaranga caller - the woman (or women) who has the role of making the ceremonial call to visitors onto a marae, or equivalent venue, at the start of a pōwhiri
  • Kaitiaki trustee, minder, guard, custodian, guardian, keeper
  • Kaitiakitanga guardianship
  • Kanohi ki te kanohi the seen face, present yourself to people face to face (L. Smith, 2006)
  • Karakia incantation, prayer, grace, blessing, church service
  • Kaua e mahaki do not be arrogant with your knowledge or impose your expertise on others (L. Smith, 2006)
  • Karakia incantation, prayer, grace, blessing, church service
  • Kaua e mahaki do not flaunt your knowledge (L. Smith, 2006)
  • Kaua e takahia te mana o te tangata do not trample over the people’s dignity (L. Smith, 2006)
  • Kaumātua elder. In this research it refers to chosen experts who have knowledge of mātauranga and tikanga Māori
  • Kaupapa topic, policy, matter for discussion (also means platform, layer and raft)
  • Kaupapa Māori an approach that privileges the perspectives and protocols of Māori
  • Kawa marae protocol, ceremony to open a new house
  • Kia tupato be cautious (L. Smith, 2006)
  • Koha gift, present, offering, donation, contribution
  • Kōrero narrative, speech, conversation, discourse
  • Koroua elderly man, grandfather, grand uncle, papa
  • Kuia elderly woman, grandmother, grand aunt
  • Kura Kaupapa Māori primary school operating under Māori custom and using Māori as the medium of instruction
  • Mana a supernatural force in a person, place or object, mana goes hand in hand with tapu
  • Mana Wāhine an approach that privileges the perspectives and protocols of Māori women; also refers to the inherent prestige, authority and power of women in the context of Leonie Pihama’s (2001) principles for Mana Wāhine research
  • Mana tāne the inherent prestige, authority and power of men
  • Manaaki to support, take care of, give hospitality to, protect, look out for
  • Manaaki ki te tangata share and host people, be generous (L. Smith, 2006)
  • Manaakitanga hospitality, kindness
  • Manuhiri visitor, guest
  • Māori indigenous New Zealander, indigenous person of Aotearoa/New Zealand
  • Māoritanga Māori culture, practices and beliefs
  • Marae community facility where hapū collectives discuss political and social matters, and host important events such as funerals
  • Marae wānanga seminar, conference, forum held at a community facility for hapū collectives
  • Matariki the Māori new year
  • Mātauranga education, knowledge, wisdom, understanding, skill
  • Matua father, uncle
  • Mātua parents
  • Maunga mountain, mount, peak
  • Mauri life principle, special nature, a material symbol of a life principle, source of emotions
  • Moana sea, ocean, large lake
  • Mokōpūna (mokos) grandchild, descendant - child or grandchild of a son, daughter, nephew, niece, etc
  • Noa be free from the extensions of tapu, ordinary, unrestricted
  • Ora be alive, well, safe, cured, recovered, healthy, fit
  • Pākehā New Zealander of European descent
  • Papa kāinga original home, home base, village
  • Pepe baby
  • Pepeha a recitation of whakapapa and areas of significance, see the beginning of this section
  • Pōwhiri invitation, rituals of encounter, welcome ceremony on a marae, welcome
  • Pūmanawa natural talent, intuitive cleverness
  • Rangahau whānau members of a Māori research advisory group
  • Rangatahi younger generation, youth
  • Rangatira rich, well off, noble, esteemed, revered
  • Rangatiratanga sovereignty, chieftainship, right to exercise authority, chiefly autonomy, self-determination, self-management, ownership, leadership of a social group, domain of the rangatira, noble birth
  • Rāhui to put in place a temporary ritual prohibition, closed season, ban, reserve
  • Rito centre shoot, undeveloped leaves of harakeke
  • Rohe boundary, district, region, territory, area, border (of land)
  • Rongoā holistic form of healing treatment for Māori (and non-Māori) that addresses cultural health issues
  • Takatāpui has been reclaimed to embrace all Māori who identify with diverse genders and sexualities such as whakawahine, tangata ira tane, lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, intersex and queer
  • Tamariki children
  • Tāne Also refers to a son of Ranginui and Papatūānuku, atua of the forests, husband of Hineahuone, father (and husband through incest) of Hinetitama/Hinenuitepo - a cautionary narrative of sexual ethics
  • Tāngata people, persons, human beings
  • Tangata whenua local people, hosts, indigenous people of the land - people born of the whenua (of the placenta and the land) where the people's ancestors have lived and where their placentas are buried
  • Tangihanga weeping, crying, funeral, rites for the dead, obsequies
  • Taonga treasure, anything prized - applied to anything considered to be of value both tangible and intangible
  • Tapu the restricted and controlled access to other human beings (Tate, 2010)
  • Tauiwi a person with no Māori tribal affiliation
  • Te ao Māori the Māori world
  • Te ao Pākehā the Pākehā world
  • Te ao mārama the world of light
  •  Te ao hurihuri the ever-changing world
  • Te kore the potential, the void, the nothingness
  • Te mamae sadness and grief
  • Te pō the form, the dark, the night
  • Te reo Māori Māori language
  • Te reo me ona tikanga Māori language and traditional practices (Pihama, 2001)
  • Te rito centre shoot, undeveloped leaves of New Zealand flax, Phormium tenax
  • Te tapu o te tangata this refers to the intrinsic tapu given to every person at conception, and relates to our relationships with the atua, tangata, and whenua
  • Te Tiriti o Waitangi the Treaty of Waitangi
  • Te ūkaipō mother, origin, source of sustenance, real home
  •  Te whare tangata the womb, uterus, cervix, vaginal; literally translated in English as ‘House of People’
  • Teina younger sibling of the same gender. (Tēina – means plural)
  • Tiaki/tanga to guard, keep; also to look after, nurse, care, protect, conserve, save (computer)
  • Tika correct, appropriate
  • Tikanga correct procedure, custom, manner and practice, pertaining to Māori
  • Tinana body, trunk (of a tree), the main part of anything
  • Tino rangatiratanga self-determination
  • Tipu to grow, increase, spring, issue, begin, develop, sprout also refers to a seedling, growth, development, shoot, bud, plant
  • Tūpuna /Tīpuna ancestors, grandparents
  • Titiro, whakarongo… kōrero look, listen, speak (L. Smith, 2006)
  • Tohunga skilled person, chosen expert, priest - a person chosen by the agent of an atua and the tribe as a leader in a particular field because of signs indicating talent for a particular vocation
  • Tuakana elder sibling of the same gender (tuākana is plural)
  • Wahi ngaro world of gods and spirits, divine intervention, a place out of sight
  • Wāhine women
  • Wai water, juice, liquid
  • Waiata song, chant, psalm
  • Waiora health, soundness
  • Wairua spirituality, spirit, soul, quintessence - spirit of a person which exists beyond death
  • Wānanga seminar, conference, forum
  • Whaea mother, aunt
  • Whaea kēkē aunt
  • Whaikōrero the art or practice of oratory
  • Whakamā be ashamed, shy, bashful, embarrassed
  • Whakanoa a violation that diminishes the tapu of atua, tāngata, and whenua, impairing or obstructing their mana
  • Whakapapa genealogy, lineage, descent (also means genealogical table)
  • Whakarite governing concept of balance between people and the world, in terms of reciprocity and complementary roles (Herangi-Panapa, 1998)
  • Whakaruruhau “actions which recognise, respect and nurture the unique cultural identity of tangata whenua…and safely meets their needs, expectations and rights” (Ramsden, cited in Jungersen, 2002, p. 6)
  • Whakataukī proverb, saying, cryptic saying, aphorism
  • Whakautu to answer, reply, respond
  • Whakawatea to clear, excuse, free, make way for, dislodge, exempt
  • Whakawhiti to exchange, cross over, change, transfer, interchange, ferry, or to make shine
  • Whānau extended family, to be born, to give birth
  • Whānaunga relative, relation, kin, blood relation
  • Whānaungatanga relationship, kinship, sense of family connection
  • Whāngai to raise, adopt, nurture (also means to feed)
  • Whare house
  • Whare hui main meeting area of a marae
  • Whāriki floor covering, ground cover, floor mat, carpet, mat
  • Whenua land, country, ground, placenta, afterbirth


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